Friday, December 3, 2010

The political system in Egypt

The political system in Egypt

      The Arab Republic of Egypt is a Socialist Democratic State based on the alliance of the working forces of the people. The Egyptian people are part of the Arab Nation and work for the realization of its comprehensive unity.     article -1 from the Constitution
Democratic system means that  people govern themselves in Article III of the Constitution, we see that the people is the source of authoritySystem consists of  the three basic powers headed by the President  
they are  the 
 Legislative authority - The Executive power - the judiciary
Who is the President 
The People’s Assembly shall nominate the President of the Republic . The nomination shall be referred to the people for a plebiscite. The nomination for the President of the Republic shall be made in the People’ Assembly upon the proposal of at least one third of its members. The candidate who obtains two thirds of the votes of the members of the People’s Assembly shall be referred to the people for a plebiscite . If he does not obtain the said majority the nomination process shall be repeated two days after the first vote. The candidate obtaining an absolute majority of the votes of the Assembly members shall be referred to the citizens for a plebiscite. The candidate shall be considered President of the Republic when he obtains an absolute majority of votes cast in the plebiscite. If the candidate does not obtain this majority, the Assembly shall propose the nomination of another candidate and the same procedure shall follow concerning his candidature and election.   
   article - 76 from the Constitution
- Presidential term, as determined by the Constitution six  years 

Legislative authority

The People’s Assembly shall exercise the legislative power, approve the general policy of the State, the general plan of economic and social development and the general budget of the State. It shall exercise control over the work of the executive authority in the manner prescribed by the Constitution.
article - 76 from the Constitution
 -  The number of the elected members of the People’s Assembly must be at least 350 members of whom one half at least must be workers and farmers elected by direct secret pubic balloting. The Law shall determine the definition of the worker and the farmer 

  Terms of reference of the People's Assembly

Adoption of the treaties and agreements
Adoption of the plan and budget
Control over the work of the executive branch
Discuss the statement of President of the Republic
Amendment to the Constitution
Adoption of the Declaration states of war and emergency

The Executive power

Is the authority implementing the legislative and judicial decisions and formulate public policy of the state and regulate their affairs . The President shall preside over the executive authority, who seeks to assert the sovereignty of the people and respect the Constitution and the rule of law and protect national unity * The presidential term is six years starting from the date of announcing the referendum results, and may be re-elected for a term in another and put the head of state in conjunction with the Council of Ministers State's general policy and oversees the implementation, who also serves as Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, and Chairman of the Supreme Council of the police, and the President of the National Defense Council Government: (Cabinet)The Executive Board and senior management, which manages the work of the State to direct, coordinate and follow up the work of ministries and public bodies and the preparation of the draft general budget of the State and the general plan of the State and contract loans and give them * also involved the government with the President of the Republic in the development policy of the State and supervise its implementation and in accordance with the laws and decrees of the Republic * works Government also noted the implementation of the law, maintaining State security and protecting the rights of citizens and interests * Assistive devices for the government: is the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics, and the Central Agency for Organization and Management         

The judiciary

According to the Constitution the judiciary is independent and vested in courts issue judgments in accordance with the law and that judges are independent and may be any power to intervene in the affairs of justice *The judiciary authority is composed of courts of different types (partial, primary, appeal and cassation) and Administrative Justice (Council of State), and the Supreme Constitutional Court *The judiciary plays an important role in the judicial control over the constitutionality of laws and the interpretation of legislative texts, also play an important role in the formation of political parties that support democracy in Egypt and protects the rights and freedoms and the values of society and the Egyptian citizen.